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The Caliphate of Cordoba
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In 822, Ziryab, of Iraqi origin, settles in Cordoba* and supports a life of court which will influence the town and aristocratic mediums. Abd el Rahman III seizes the power into 912, not without difficulties because the rebellions are numerous. In 927, Melilla is taken. The caliphate is proclaimed in 929. Ceuta and Tangier are taken respectively in 931 and 951. The Caliphate of Cordoba extends its authority on two banks of the strait of Tangier.
The control of the north of Morocco passes by a set of alliances with the tribe of Zenata.
The Idrissids evacuated Fez and were established in the Rif. They are transplanted in 976 in Cordoba.
Andalusian art is diffused in all the northern part of the Maghreb.
The new residence of the caliph is set up: Medina el Zahara, ten years after the introduction of the Caliphate. The Caliph is, at the same time, a king (malik) and a supreme Imam. The secular functions are accompanied by many signs symbolizing the capacity, conferring a kind of sacrality to the capacity. The royal pump does not escape criticisms just like from the fuqaas (Islamic doctors of the law) at the Abbasids from Baghdad.
The Caliph isolates himself more and more within the framework from sacralization from his function.
Arab poetry is spread. Ibn Hazan composes the “collar of the dove”. The adab contributes to the courteous and town life. Medicine develops. Abu el Qasim Al Zahrawi writes a medical book of reference. In the same way, the pharmacopoeia develops. Many well-read men live at the court. The women have to them place.
Cordoba is a large town of twenty kilometres of circumference and which counts, according to the various estimates, between 100.000 and 1 million inhabitants. The large mosque is built between 784 and 786.
The decline of the caliphate starts with the reign of Hicham II. He starts to reign at the eleven years age. The reality of the capacity is between the hands of the “Hajib”. Ibn Abi Amir “el Mansur” which, during ten years, exerts a true dictatorship. The function of “Hajib” tends to becoming hereditary. The function of the caliph is shredded. One of wire of Abi Amir claims with the caliphate, which causes a fitna. The Berber troops plunder Cordoba in 1013. The caliphate is abolished in 1031. From its ruins, small kingdoms emerge. They are Taïfas; striking currency and paying heavy tributes to the Christian kingdoms which start a long process of reconquest (Toledo falls in 1085). The division and the Christian threat will open the way with the conquest of Andalusia by the Almoravids which are, at this time, in the north of the Maghreb. They pass to Andalusia in 1086.

* Inside of the mosque of Cordoba Home page