The Moslem concept of prophecy describes the tanzil, i.e. the intervention, the “descent” of God among the time of the men (cracks of time according to Gardet). It required there by intermitence of a recall of the Truth (the dhikr) revealed in the beginnings and which was forgotten or diverted.
The Coranic revelation renews the pact of origin: the mitaq.
Will fitra is the trace within any man, conscious or not, of the mitaq. The dhikr has thus the role to reactivate will fitra it.
Islam registers its revelation in the continuation of the preceding revelations and thus of the preceding prophets (Coran, S 2, V 135). Among these prophets, three “are endowed with constancy”: Abraham (Ibrahim), Mose (Mussa) and Jesus (`Issa).
Ibrahim gives his name in the Coran (S 14). He is the breaker of idols and God saved test of the fire to which his tribe had subjected him.
In 630, by breaking the idols of Mecque, Mohammad renewed the gesture of Ibrahim.
Ibrahim offered his own son to God because he believed in the divine message received in dream. It is the testing period of his faith.
The Hajj festival renewed the sacrifice of Ibrahim.
According to Coran Ibrahim and Ismaël rebuilt Ka'aba built, according to the tradition, by Seth after the deluge.
There is thus a bond between the History and Coran. According to the Coran (S 3, V 67) Ibrahim “were neither Jewish nor Christian but hanif muslim”.
Hanif would be an original follower of the “true” religion of before the Judaism and Christianity. Ibrahim are the father of believing the monotheists and thus model faith.
Islam is, consequently, an abrahamic religion. Moreover, there is genealogical filiation between the Arabs and Ismaël.
Second prophet, Mussa is called Kalim Allah, that has which God was addressed.
As for `Issa, he is Kalimat Allah, the Verb of God… But not the son of God according to Christians'.
According to Coran, `Issa did not die on the cross. A other man would have replaced him.
According to Coran (S 61, V 6) `Issa announce the arrival of Mohammad. `Issa will return at the end of Times.
Mohammad is the seal of the prophets, i.e. that which closes the cycle of prophecy. He is the last prophet.
Mohammad is designated as prophet ummi (Coran, S 7, V 157). There is several meanings with the word “ummi”.
That means in the literal sense “illiterate” but according to the Moslem sources, Mohammad could read and write. It is then advisable to consider another mean: Ummi would qualify the prophet of the people which are unaware of the Writing, i.e. the revelation of the Truth, of the Law (according to Blachère). Jacques Berque proposes another significance: Ingenuous, in a state of childhood… The innocence of that which has just been born. In other words, Mohammad is nothing without the Word which it carries. Declared “impeccable”, without sin, the prophet would be a neutral support of Word.