red cock

Le Coq Rouge (The Red Cock)
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History: France

The red cock: It’s under this strange term that the peasants of the 14th century indicate fire. At the end of the spring of 1358, the red cock suddenly sets ablaze a territory which covers the south of the current department of Oise, part of the Valley of Oise and the area of Meaux in the Seine and Marne. The flames arrive until Normandy and out of Champagne. The fires of anger, the bonfires then the blazing infernos of a pitiless repression will clarify the sky of Picardy and Ile-de-France between on May 28 and the end of June.

Anger contained a long time bursts with an incredible brutality. The village groups meet and form quickly a many troop but without chief and precise objective if is not to attack the castles, symbols of the injustice and oppression.

Fights of paesants and soldiers

Guillaume Calle is a peasant originating to the village of Mello, close to Nointel. Former soldier, it corresponds to the profile of the chief whom the insurrectionists want to give each other. He agrees, after a first refusal, to become the “captain general” of the Jacquerie and takes again on his account the war cry of the peasants: “Died with the noble !” L’Hospitalier, a former monk who, also made him the war, joined them.

Nointel church

Guillaume Calle arrives for the army of Charles le Mauvais, King of Navarre. One lets it approach. He puts foot at ground, imitated by his companions. He doesn’t have time to approach Charles. Men seize immediately him and his continuation. He howls with treason, with the trap.

Charles le Mauvais is decided to crush the jacquerie

On June 9, two decisive battles are delivered. That of Nointel where seven thousand peasants, from now on without general, undergo the attack from two to three thousand soldiers of the Navarrese and the battle of Meaux which puts at the catches the “milice bourgeoise” supported by of the Jacques which attack the noble in charge ones of the protection of the wife of the Dolphin.

The Jacques are crushed at the the battle of Meaux

Meaux is on fire. The army of the Jacques was demolished in Nointel. It is the hour of repression. Several thousands of peasants are massacred a little everywhere and the villages set fire to as a punishment. The chiefs of revolted are pitilessly tortured and carried out without lawsuit. The troops gallop furiously in the middle of ripe corns, destroying all, setting fire to houses and fields.

Hanging of peasants

Etienne Marcel, Prévôt of the merchants of Paris was at the same time the ally of Charles le Mauvais one and that of the Jacques with an aim of drawing aside his principal adversary: the Dolphin Charles, future Charles V. the defeat of the peasants and the behavior of the English and Navarrese soldiers exasperate the Parisian people. When they learn that Etienne Marcel is again inserting the English and Navarreses army in the capital and on the point of giving the keys of the city to their chief, the middle-class men revolt against him. During a short scuffle, on July 31, 1358, Jean Maillard, an alderman faithful to the royalty, makes assassinate Étienne Marcel in front of the door of Saint-Antoine.

Execution of Etienne Marcel

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